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#7 - Suicide et BULLYING CHEZ LES ADOLESCENTS - 5 décembre 2011

Cela peut s’appeler intimidation, taxage, victimisation par les pairs, ostracisme, harcèlement psychologique, violence/abus psychologique ou bullying, c’est une réalité que les jeunes vivent et qui peut être un facteur de risque pour le suicide. Être le bouc émissaire, le souffre-douleur ou le rejet de ses collègues de classe ou d’école n’est pas un phénomène nouveau chez les adolescents. Ce qui a changé, ce sont les moyens utilisés pour faire du bullying, notamment le cyberbullying. Avec l’avènement des médias sociaux sur Internet, il n’y a plus de refuge contre l’intimidation. Ce n’est plus simplement dans la cour d’école, le soir sur le chemin de la maison ou dans le parc que certains jeunes sont victimes de bullying. Et cette forme de violence aura des répercussions pendant des années sur la victime. Cette semaine, la liste porte sur cette question en lien avec le suicide. Vous pouvez également consulter la rubrique sur ce thème sur notre site d’application des connaissances sur la prévention du suicide : http://www.criseapplication.uqam.ca/theme1.asp?partie=partie3_1#3_1_2
Le SPRC a produit une brochure incluant une revue de littérature sur le sujet : http://www.sprc.org/library/Suicide_Bullying_Issue_Brief.pdf

Pour vous abonner à notre liste d'envoi, complétez le formulaire en-ligne.

Losey, B. (2011). Bullying, Suicide, and Homicide: Understanding, Assessing, and Preventing Threats to Self and Others for Victims of Bullying. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Résumé : In our society, bullying is commonly seen as a normal, inescapable part of growing up that children and adolescents must simply endure. In Bullying, Suicide, and Homicide, [the author] challenges this viewpoint, arguing that bullying is not a part of childhood development, but rather an aberrant behavior that, for the victim, can lead to adverse decisions, such as suicide and homicide. He provides a detailed understanding of the relationship between bullying, suicide, and homicide and an assessment and response strategy that can be utilized by mental health professionals who work with children and adolescents. This strategy involves a three stage ecological approach: screening to identify warning signs for bullying, depression, suicide, and violence by means of the Bullying Lethality Identification System (BLIS), developed by [the author] and a colleague; assessing the risks of suicide and threats of violence using specially tailored forms and tools; and mediating to identify appropriate interventions. All of the associated tools and forms that the author has created are included as appendices and on the accompanying CD. [The author's] sensitive and compassionate treatment of this important subject will inform and motivate mental health professionals in their work with victims of bullying. [Tiré de la quatrième de couverture]

Miller, D. N. (2011). Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention . New York: The Guildford Press.
Résumé : Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk assessments, and intervening at different levels of intensity with students at risk. Also presented are postvention procedures for responding effectively if a suicide does occur. Legal and ethical issues are addressed in detail. Reproducible handouts include sample assessment questions for students, teachers, and parents; the book's large-size format and lay-flat binding facilitate photocopying. [tiré de la quatrième de couverture]

Juhnke, G. A., Granello, D. H., & Granello, P. F. (2010). Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools: Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention Strategies . Hoboken, New Jersey, US: John WIley & Sons, Inc.
Résumé : The increasing rate of suicide, self-injury, and violence among adolescents in school settings has created a strong need for more information on these topics for professionals working in the field. This book is the first of its kind to provide school psychologists with information on assessing and preventing the risk of all three in a practical, concise, and affordable format. Counselors, psychologists, and social workers in school settings will benefit from this book's practical step-by-step methods for dealing with the risk of violence, self-injury, and suicide.

Thompson, R., Proctor, L. J., English, D. J., Dubowitz, H., Narasimhan, S., & Everson, M. D. (2011). Suicidal ideation in adolescence: Examining the role of recent adverse experiences. Journal of Adolescence, [Epub].
Résumé: Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN studies, as well as potential mediators. 8.9% of the youth reported suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences, as a class, were associated with suicidal ideation; both recent physical abuse and recent psychological maltreatment were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation. The links between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation were significantly mediated by psychological distress. There were also significant main effect associations between both internalizing behavioral problems and low positive achievement expectations and suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences are important in understanding suicidal ideation in high risk youth.

Kessel Schneider, S., O'Donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. W. (2011). Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students. American Journal of Public Health.[Epub].
Résumé: Objectives. Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. Methods. In the fall of 2008, 20406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. Results. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Conclusions. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221.
Résumé: Empirical studies and some high-profile anecdotal cases have demonstrated a link between suicidal ideation and experiences with bullying victimization or offending. The current study examines the extent to which a nontraditional form of peer aggression—cyberbullying—is also related to suicidal ideation among adolescents. In 2007, a random sample of 1,963 middle-schoolers from one of the largest school districts in the United States completed a survey of Internet use and experiences. Youth who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, as either an offender or a victim, had more suicidal thoughts and were more likely to attempt suicide than those who had not experienced such forms of peer aggression. Also, victimization was more strongly related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors than offending. The findings provide further evidence that adolescent peer aggression must be taken seriously both at school and at home, and suggest that a suicide prevention and intervention component is essential within comprehensive bullying response programs implemented in schools.

McMahon, E. M., Reulbach, U., Keeley, H., Perry, I. J., & Arensman, E. (2010). Bullying victimisation, self harm and associated factors in Irish adolescent boys. Social Science and Medicine, 71(7), 1300-1307.
Résumé: School bullying victimisation is associated with poor mental health and self harm. However, little is known about the lifestyle factors and negative life events associated with victimisation, or the factors associated with self harm among boys who experience bullying. The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of bullying in Irish adolescent boys, the association between bullying and a broad range of risk factors among boys, and factors associated with self harm among bullied boys and their non-bullied peers. Analyses were based on the data of the Irish centre of the Child and Adolescent Self Harm in Europe (CASE) study (boys n = 1870). Information was obtained on demographic factors, school bullying, deliberate self harm and psychological and lifestyle factors including negative life events. In total 363 boys (19.4%) reported having been a victim of school bullying at some point in their lives. The odds ratio of lifetime self harm was four times higher for boys who had been bullied than those without this experience. The factors that remained in the multivariate logistic regression model for lifetime history of bullying victimisation among boys were serious physical abuse and self esteem. Factors associated with self harm among bullied boys included psychological factors, problems with schoolwork, worries about sexual orientation and physical abuse, while family support was protective against self harm. Our findings highlight the mental health problems associated with victimisation, underlining the importance of anti-bullying policies in schools. Factors associated with self harm among boys who have been bullied should be taken into account in the identification of boys at risk of self harm.

Rivers, I., & Noret, N. (2010). Participant roles in bullying behavior and their association with thoughts of ending one's life Crisis, 31(3), 143-148.
Résumé: Background: Studies have shown that students who are bullied at school are at an increased risk of poor mental health and suicide. Little is known, however, about those who have other participant roles in bullying interactions (e.g., bystanders). Aims: To better understand the implications exposure to bullying has upon thoughts of ending life among students who have multiple participant roles. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 2,002 students (55% boys, 45% girls) aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the North of England. Results: The majority of students in this study were involved in bullying behavior at school as victims, bullies, bystanders, or a combination of all three. Those with multiple roles (victim, bully, and bystander) were significantly more likely to report having had thoughts of ending their life. Conclusions: The findings from this study have significant implications for clinicians, educational, and school psychologists working with students involved in bullying behavior. Whole school antibullying initiatives are necessary to reduce the psychological distress and thoughts of ending life found among members of the school population. Further studies exploring covictimization among bystanders and revictimization among former victims of bullying are recommended.

Epstein, J. A., & Spirito, A. (2010). Gender-specific risk factors for suicidality among high school students. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 193-205.
Résumé: This study examined differences in three major risk areas associated with suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) separately by gender: 1) substance use, 2) aggression/victimization, and 3) risky sexual behaviors. This study is a secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) survey, consisting of data collected from a nationally representative sample of high school students. Early alcohol onset, having had sex before age 13, injection drug use, and being forced to have sex were associated with suicidality across gender. Smoking in girls was associated with making a plan to attempt suicide and actual suicide attempts. Fighting was related to suicidality for girls, while fighting in school was related to suicidality for boys. The importance of examining risk factors for suicidality separately for boys and girls is discussed.

Garisch, J. A., & Wilson, M. S. (2010). Vulnerabilities to deliberate self-harm among adolescents: The role of alexithymia and victimization. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(2), 151-162.
Résumé: Objectives: This study investigates vulnerabilities to deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents, specifically focusing on peer victimisation and alexithymia. Design: Correlational survey design. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-five secondary school students completed self-report questionnaires asking their history of DSH and bullying, and scales assessing alexithymia and depression. Results: Self-harming adolescents reported more victimization and alexithymic symptomology than participants who had never engaged in DSH. Alexithymia moderated, and partially mediated, the relationship between bullying and DSH. Bullying and DSH significantly co-varied when participants’ alexithymia was moderate or high, but not when participants’ alexithymia was low. The relationship between alexithymia and DSH was fully mediated by depression. The relationship between bullying and DSH was also moderated by depression. Depression moderated the relationship between alexithymia and DSH. Conclusions: The findings suggest stressors in the social environment (e.g. bullying) are more likely to facilitate DSH when an adolescent has poor emotion regulation and communication skills and when an individual is experiencing mood difficulties.

Mahfoud, Z. R., Afifi, R. A., Haddad, P. H., & Dejong, J. (2010). Prevalence and determinants of suicide ideation among Lebanese adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005. Journal of Adolescence, 34(2),379-384.
Résumé: The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt sad or hopeless), substance use (got drunk, used drugs), victimization (was bullied, was sexually harassed), and lack of parental understanding. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.

Ploderl, M., Faistauer, G., & Fartacek, R. (2010). The contribution of school to the feeling of acceptance and the risk of suicide attempts among Austrian gay and bisexual males. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(7), 819-841.
Résumé: School-related factors contributing to the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are understudied, especially in German-speaking Europe. Among our Web-based sample of 468 Austrian gay or bisexual adults, 18% attempted suicide and about one half of them reported that hard times at school related to one's homosexuality partly or mainly caused the attempt. Such suicide attempts were associated with a lack of acceptance at school and harassment experiences. In contrast to suicide attempts, acceptance at school was significantly associated with protective factors such as teachers intervening against homophobia or presence of openly homosexual teachers or peers. These findings may be important for consideration in school-based suicide prevention programs.

Cui, S., Cheng, Y., Xu, Z., Chen, D., & Wang, Y. (2010). Peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(5), 692-702.
Résumé: Background: Suicide is a global health concern. Therefore, studying suicide behaviour and identifying the early roots of suicide are critical. To address these issues, the present study examined (i) the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents; and (ii) whether such associations were moderated or mediated by feeling of loneliness. We hypothesized that problems in peer relationships were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feeling of loneliness would moderate and mediate such associations. Methods: The sample included 8778 Chinese adolescents from a large survey. Measures of peer relationships, suicide ideation and attempts, and feeling of loneliness were obtained through adolescents' self-reports. Results: Results from multivariate logistic regressions suggested that specific problems in peer relationships, such as lack of peer association and being victimized by bullying, were significantly related to suicide ideation and attempts. In addition, the moderating effects of feeling of loneliness on the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts were found. Finally, some gender effects were also found. Conclusions: The present study provided strong evidence that suicide ideation and attempts were serious problems among adolescents in China, to which peer relationships played an important role. Further, feeling of loneliness acted as a moderator affecting the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts. Finally, there were some gender differences that have important implications.

Jutengren, G., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2011). Adolescents' deliberate self-harm, interpersonal stress, and the moderating effects of self-regulation: A two-wave longitudinal analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 49(2), 249-264.
Résumé: The predictive effects of peer victimization and harsh parenting on deliberate self-harm were examined. As derived from the experiential avoidance model, the study also tested whether these links were moderated by individual self-regulation approaches. Data were collected at two points in time from 880 junior high school students (mean age = 13.72) in Sweden. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that Peer Victimization was predictive of self-harm. Although Harsh Parenting was not predictive of self-harm, this link was moderated by adolescents' gender. No moderating effect of self-regulation was revealed. The study concludes that the high prevalence of deliberate self-harm recently found in community samples of adolescents cannot be prevented without attending to environmental psychosocial factors.

Wang, R. H., Lai, H. J., Hsu, H. Y., & Hsu, M. T. (2011). Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents . Nurs Res, 60(6), 413-421.
Résumé: BACKGROUND: : Suicide is the ninth leading cause of death in adolescents aged 15-19 years in Taiwan. Suicidal ideation is an important predictor of committing suicide among adolescents. OBJECTIVES: : The aim of this study was to examine the important risk factors, the protective factors, and the role of protective factors on the relationship of risk factors to suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents aged 15-19 years. METHODS: : By adopting a cross-sectional study, senior high school students aged 15-19 years in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, risk factors, protective factors, and suicidal ideation of the sample. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the important risk and protective factors and the interaction between risk and protective factors on suicidal ideation. RESULTS: : Nearly 18% of the participants reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. Gender, life stress, depression, peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization were important risk factors of suicidal ideation among the targeted sample. In addition, self-esteem and emotional adaptation were important protective factors of suicidal ideation. Self-esteem and emotional adaptation were not used to moderate the negative effects of life stress, depression, perceived peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. The final model explained 40.6% of the total variance in suicidal ideation and correctly predicted 86.1% of participants with suicidal ideation. DISCUSSION: : Suicidal ideation prevention programs should be targeted to female adolescents. School-based efforts that provide adolescents with self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills training, positive peer norms for life, coping skills for managing stress and depression, and antibullying programs might help reduce the suicidal ideation of adolescents.

Reynolds, D. V. (2011). Preventing bullycides: the school nurse's role in breaking the link between victimization of sexual minority youth and suicide. NASN School Nurse, 26(1), 30-34.
Résumé: Several suicides and the ensuing media attention over the past few years have brought to light the epidemic of bullying and harassment in our nation’s schools and the direct link with suicide. The mainstream media has named this phenomena “bullycide.” The deaths by suicide of two 11-year-old boys in April 2009, Carl Walker-Hoover and Jaheem Herrera, opened the door to a national conversation on the issues of bullying and potentially lethal outcomes. These two young men endured bullying and harassment based on their perceived sexual orientation, which eventually led to their deaths. In fact, bullying based on perceived sexual orientation or gender expression - in other words, when peers think someone is lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and/or not conforming to prescribed gender roles and norms - is more common than nearly every other type of harassment.

Brunstein Klomek, A., Sourander, A., & Gould, M. (2010). The association of suicide and bullying in childhood to young adulthood: a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal research findings. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry = Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 55(5), 282-288.
Résumé: OBJECTIVE: To review the research addressing the association of suicide and bullying, from childhood to young adulthood, including cross-sectional and longitudinal research findings. METHOD: Relevant publications were identified via electronic searches of PsycNet and MEDLINE without date specification, in addition to perusing the reference lists of relevant articles. RESULTS: Cross-sectional findings indicate that there is an increased risk of suicidal ideation and (or) suicide attempts associated with bullying behaviour and cyberbullying. The few longitudinal findings available indicate that bullying and peer victimization lead to suicidality but that this association varies by sex. Discrepancies between the studies available may be due to differences in the studies' participants and methods. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying and peer victimization constitute more than correlates of suicidality. Future research with long-term follow-up should continue to identify specific causal paths between bullying and suicide.

Klomek, A. B., Kleinman, M., Altschuler, E., Marrocco, F., Amakawa, L., & Gould, M. S. (2011). High school bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidality. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(5), 501-516.
Résumé: This is the first study to examine whether high school students experiencing frequent bullying behaviors are at risk for later depression and suicidality. A total of 236 students who reported frequent bullying behavior without depression or suicidality during a suicide screening were interviewed 4 years later to reassess depression, suicidal ideation, attempts, substance problems, and functional impairment and were compared to at-risk youth identified during the screen, including 96 youth who also experienced bullying behavior. Youth who only reported frequent bullying behaviors (as bullies, victims, or both) did not develop later depression or suicidality and continued to have fewer psychiatric problems than students identified as at-risk for suicide. Students who experienced bullying behaviors and depression or suicidality were more impaired 4 years later than those who had only reported depression or suicidality. Thus, assessment of bullying behaviors in screening protocols is recommended.

Roeger, L., Allison, S., Korossy-Horwood, R., Eckert, K. A., & Goldney, R. D. (2010). Is a history of school bullying victimization associated with adult suicidal ideation?: a South Australian population-based observational study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(10), 728-733.
Résumé: The objective of this research was to determine whether a history of school bullying victimization is associated with suicidal ideation in adult life. A random and representative sample of 2907 South Australian adults was surveyed in Autumn, 2008. Respondents were asked "When you were at school, did you experience traumatic bullying by peers that was particularly severe, for example, being frequently targeted or routinely harassed in any way by 'bullies'?" Depression was determined by the mood module of the PRIME-MD which includes a suicidal ideation question; "In the last 2 weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?" The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in postschool age respondents was 3.4% in 2008. Bullying by peers was recalled by 18.7%. Respondents with a history of being bullied were approximately 3 times more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with those who did not. The association between being bullied and suicidal ideation remained after controlling for both depression and sociodemographic variables. The results from the present research suggest that there is a strong association between a history of childhood bullying victimization and current suicidal ideation that persists across all ages. Bullying prevention programs in schools could hold the potential for longer lasting benefits in this important area of public health.

Meltzer, H., Vostanis, P., Ford, T., Bebbington, P., & Dennis, M. S. (2011). Victims of bullying in childhood and suicide attempts in adulthood. European Psychiatry, 26(8), 498-503.
Résumé: PURPOSE: To examine whether self-reported exposure to bullying during childhood is associated with suicide attempts over the life course, and if so, what mechanisms could account for this relationship. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A random probability sample comprising 7461 respondents was interviewed for the 2007 survey of psychiatric morbidity of adults in Great Britain. Survey respondents were asked about suicidal attempts and whether they were bullied in childhood. RESULTS: Recall of being bullied in childhood decreased with age from 25% of 16-24-year-olds to 4% among those 75 or over with few differences in the proportions between men and women. Bullying co-occurred with several victimisation experiences including sexual abuse and severe beatings and with running away from home. Even after controlling for lifetime factors known to increase the risk of suicidal behaviour, adults who reported bullying in childhood were still more than twice as likely as other adults to attempt suicide later in life. DISCUSSION: Being the victim of bullying involves the experience of suffering a defeat and humiliation that in turn could lead to entrapment, hopelessness, depression and suicidal behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying is already known to be associated with substantial distress and other negative consequences and this further evidence of a strong correlation with the risk of suicide in later life should increase further the motivation of society, services and citizens to act decisively to reduce bullying in childhood.

Staubli, S., & Killias, M. (2011). Long-term outcomes of passive bullying during childhood: Suicide attempts, victimization and offending. European Journal of Criminology, 8(5), 377-385.
Résumé: The long-term effects of bullying at elementary school have attracted increasing interest in recent years. The present study is based on a cross-sectional survey of over 21,000 young Swiss men. The sample covered about 70 percent of the cohort of Swiss males drafted into the Army in 1997, and born in or around 1977. The instrument covered many retrospective items, including experiencing bullying before age 12 and conduct problems including violent victimization and suicide attempts in the recent past. The results show that victims of bullying during childhood are still negatively affected in young adulthood. A causal role of bullying experiences in these long-term outcomes is plausible, although alternative explanations cannot be ruled out.

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UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal  ›  Mise à jour : février 2006