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#13 - Suicide et INTERNET - 14 mai 2012

Internet a transformé radicalement notre quotidien. De plus, notre relation avec celui-ci a grandement évolué depuis quelques années - de simple consommateur d’information, nous sommes devenus, notamment avec le développement des médias sociaux et du Web 2.0 (Facebook, blog et YouTube), des créateurs d’information, qu’elles soient d’ordre professionnel ou personnel, sérieuse ou ludique, que nous partageons à notre cercle de connaissances ou bien à l’ensemble des internautes. Et le sujet du suicide n’est pas ignoré dans ces échanges. L’une des premières études traitant de l’impact d’Internet et du suicide a été publiée il y a 15 ans par Baume, Cantor and Rolfe, Cybersuicide : The role of interactive suicide notes on the Internet dans la revue Crisis. Depuis, des centaines d’articles sur le sujet ont parus, l’abordant sous différentes perspectives. Internet soulève de grandes questions et amène divers défis au niveau de la prévention du suicide (Mishara et Weisstub, 2010; Mishara et Weisstub, 2007), mais il offre également de grandes opportunités à celle-ci. C’est dans cette optique que le 9e Institut d’été du CRISE aura pour thème « Les nouvelles technologies et la prévention du suicide ». Du 30 mai au 1er juin, des experts québécois et internationaux dans le domaine viendront présenter leurs innovations en la matière. Consultez notre programme : http://crise.ca/fr/instituts_2012.asp?section=instituts&sujet=2012

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Auxéméry, Y., & Fidelle, G. (2010). Impact d’Internet sur la suicidalité. À propos d’une "googling study" sur la rétro-information médiatique d’un pacte suicidaire échafaudé sur le web. Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 168(7), 502-507.
Résumé: La communication via le réseau Internet ne cesse de se développer dans une société de plus en plus médiatisée. À l’occasion d’un pacte suicidaire récemment conclu sur la toile, les médias se sont interrogés sur la responsabilité du Web en tant que promoteur du suicide. Après une revue de la littérature explorant les liens entre l’Internet et suicidalité, nous évoquerons les déterminants épidémiologiques et psychopathologiques du pacte suicidaire élaboré sur l’Internet ou cybersuicide. Nous avons réalisé une googling study visant à déterminer si les informations journalistiques consultables sur la toile respectaient les recommandations établies par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé sur la manière de relater un fait suicidaire dans la presse. Cette question est centrale car il s’agit pour ces sites de on-line press de donner une information via l’Internet au sujet d’un pacte suicidaire lui-même concrétisé entre deux internautes. Enfin, nous développons l’aide certaine que peut apporter le Web en matière de prévention des conduites autoagressives.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amp.2009.10.013

Luxton, D. D., June, J. D., & Fairall, J. M. (2012). Social media and suicide: A public health perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 102(Suppl 2), 195-200.
Résumé: There is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Important questions are whether this influence poses a significant risk to the public and how public health approaches might be used to address the issue. To address these questions, we provide an overview of ways that social media can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively, and we evaluate the evidence of the risk. We also discuss the legal complexities of this important topic and propose future directions for research and prevention programs based on a public health perspective.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2011.300608

Collings, S. C., & Niederkrotenthaler, T. (2012). Suicide prevention and emergent media: surfing the opportunity Crisis, 33(1), 1-4.
Résumé: At the recent 2011 IASP conference in Beijing and at the European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behavior (ESSSB) in Rome in 2010, there were lively sessions that demonstrated the surge of interest in the role of newer media in the etiology of suicidal behaviors and as potential tools in suicide prevention. A search of PubMed using the terms “suicide” and “internet” revealed at least 57 peer-reviewed studies between 2009 and the present—a sharp increase compared to the 99 studies published in the decade from 1998 to 2008. This signals a refreshing attitude to what we are still calling “new media” despite the presence of at least the Internet in daily life for some 15 years. Because of their constantly evolving nature, we refer to these “newer” media types as “emergent media” throughout this editorial.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000141

Ruder, T. D., Hatch, G. M., Ampanozi, G., Thali, M. J., & Fischer, N. (2011). Suicide announcement on Facebook. Crisis, 32(5), 280-282.
Résumé: Background: The media and the Internet may be having an influence on suicidal behavior. Online social networks such as Facebook represent a new facet of global information transfer. The impact of these online social networks on suicidal behavior has not yet been evaluated. Aims: To discuss potential effects of suicide notes on Facebook on suicide prevention and copycat suicides, and to create awareness among health care professionals. Methods: We present a case involving a suicide note on Facebook and discuss potential consequences of this phenomenon based on literature found searching PubMed and Google. Results: There are numerous reports of suicide notes on Facebook in the popular press, but none in the professional literature. Online social network users attempted to prevent planned suicides in several reported cases. To date there is no documented evidence of a copycat suicide, directly emulating a suicide announced on Facebook. Conclusions: Suicide notes on online social networks may allow for suicide prevention via the immediate intervention of other network users. But it is not yet clear to what extent suicide notes on online social networks actually induce copycat suicides. These effects deserve future evaluation and research.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000086

Biddle, L., Gunnell, D., Owen-Smith, A., Potokar, J., Longson, D., Hawton, K., et al. (2012). Information sources used by the suicidal to inform choice of method. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 702-709.
Résumé: BACKGROUND: Choice of suicide method strongly influences the outcome of an attempt public knowledge of possible methods is an important but less frequently considered aspect of the accessibility of suicide. This qualitative study explored the sources of information shaping the near-fatal suicide attempts of 22 individuals. METHODS: Respondents were recruited from nine hospitals in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain detailed narratives of the planning of the suicide attempt. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, then subjected to thematic analysis utilising constant comparison techniques. RESULTS: Information sources discussed most frequently were television, news stories, the Internet, and previous self-harm. Others were professional resources, personal knowledge of others' attempts and information gleaned from healthcare professionals. Many respondents reported seeing media portrayals or reports of suicide, which had contributed to their awareness of suicide methods. Several provided examples of direct imitation. Some had deliberately sought information about methods when planning their attempt - mostly from the Internet. Past experience was used to identify 'best' methods and perfect implementation. LIMITATIONS: The frequency with which sources of information are 'used' by particular groups and their relative import cannot be inferred from a qualitative sample. Near-fatal cases may differ from completed suicides. CONCLUSIONS: The media is an important contributor to the cognitive availability of suicide in society and could be used for prevention through carefully crafted portrayals of suicide designed to generate negative social perceptions of popular methods. Understanding of how sources of information can influence perceptions of suicide could inform the content of clinical conversations with patients.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.004

Kemp, C. G., & Collings, S. C. (2011). Hyperlinked suicide. Crisis, 32(3), 143-151.
Résumé: Background: The relationship between the Internet and suicide is a topic of growing concern among suicide researchers and the public, though to date few have actually attempted to investigate the accessibility and prominence of suicide-related information online, and there have been no comprehensive studies of site networking structure. Aims: To assess the visibility of various types of online information to suicide-risk individuals, and to assess the prominence and accessibility of "pro-suicide," suicide prevention, and support sites by measuring their networking structure. Methods: Employing empirically derived search terms, we used the web-based Virtual Observatory for the Study of Online Networks (VOSON) to conduct hyperlink network analysis (HNA) of suicide-related websites. Results: Pro-suicide sites are rare and marginal, while sites dedicated to information about suicide as well as sites dedicated to prevention policy and advocacy are readily accessible. Conclusions: The networking structure of suicide-related Internet content has not been described previously. Our analysis shows that HNA is a useful method for gaining an indepth understanding of network traffic in relation to suicide-content websites. This information will be useful for strengthening the web presence of support and suicide prevention sites, and for monitoring changes over time.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000068

Page, A., Chang, S. S., & Gunnell, D. (2011). Surveillance of Australian suicidal behaviour using the internet? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(12), 1020-1022.
Résumé: The article presents a study that investigated whether internet searches using Google in Australia relating to ways to commit suicide showed any seasonal trends or were related to unemployment rates using Unobserved Component Models. Trends in these search terms were restricted to Australia, and entered individually and in combination. Google does not provide absolute numbers of searches but a relative figure based on search activity for the study period, normalized to a scale of 100. The month in the selected period with the highest number of searches is assigned the value 100, and other months are scaled accordingly. The findings indicate that trends in Internet searches of suicide terms using Google are not a sufficiently straightforward indicator of the levels of suicidal behavior in Australia, and showed no seasonality, and limited evidence for an association with unemployment trends. However, analyses could not investigate corresponding monthly counts of suicide given the current lag in availability of mortality data in Australia. The strong associations between high-profile media reports and suicide search terms may have more utility in understanding patterns of suicide clusters and the effects of media coverage on 'copy-cat' suicides than in understanding population- levels of suicidal behavior in Australia.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2011.623660

Durkee, T., Hadlaczky, G., Westerlund, M., & Carli, V. (2011). Internet pathways in suicidality: a review of the evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(10), 3938-3952.
Résumé: The general aim of this study was to review the scientific literature concerning the Internet and suicidality and to examine the different pathways by which suicidal risks and prevention efforts are facilitated through the Internet. An online literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. The main themes that were investigated included pathological Internet use and suicidality, pro-suicide websites, suicide pacts on the Internet, and suicide prevention via the Internet. Articles were screened based on the titles and abstracts reporting on the themes of interest. Thereafter, articles were selected based on scientific relevance of the study, and included for full text assessment. The results illustrated that specific Internet pathways increased the risk for suicidal behaviours, particularly in adolescents and young people. Several studies found significant correlations between pathological Internet use and suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. Pro-suicide websites and online suicide pacts were observed as high-risk factors for facilitating suicidal behaviours, particularly among isolated and susceptible individuals. Conversely, the evidence also showed that the Internet could be an effective tool for suicide prevention, especially for socially-isolated and vulnerable individuals, who might otherwise be unreachable. It is this paradox that accentuates the need for further research in this field.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8103938

Dunlop, S. M., More, E., & Romer, D. (2011). Where do youth learn about suicides on the Internet, and what influence does this have on suicidal ideation? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1073-1080.
Résumé: Background: Young people are susceptible to suicidal behavior as a result of learning about the suicidal behavior of others. This study was designed to determine whether Internet sites, such as online news and social networking websites, expose young people to suicide stories that might increase suicide ideation. Method: We reinterviewed 719 young people ages 14 to 24 who had participated in a prior nationally representative survey. Respondents reported knowledge of persons they knew who had committed or attempted suicide as well as personal experiences of hopelessness and suicidal ideation on both occasions. On the second occasion one year later, they also reported use of various Internet platforms and how often they had been exposed to suicide stories on those sites, as well as from personal sources. Changes in ideation as a function of exposure to different sources of suicide stories were analyzed holding constant prior hopelessness and ideation. Results: While traditional sources of information about suicide were most often cited (79% were from friends and family or newspapers), online sources were also quite common (59%). Social networking sites were frequently cited as sources, but these reports were not linked to increases in ideation. However, online discussion forums were both cited as sources and associated with increases in ideation. Conclusions: The Internet and especially social networking sites are important sources of suicide stories. However, discussion forums appear to be particularly associated with increases in suicidal ideation. Greater efforts should be undertaken to promote Internet sites directed to young people that enhance effective coping with hopelessness and suicidal ideation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02416.x

Sueki, H. (2011). Does the volume of Internet searches using suicide-related search terms influence the suicide death rate: Data from 2004 to 2009 in Japan. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 65(4), 392-394.
Résumé: Cross-correlation was examined for the volume of suicide-related Internet searches and suicide death rate. Analysis of Google data and figures released by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare indicated that the volume of searches using the search terms jisatsu (suicide) and jisatsu houhou (suicide method) are not correlated with the suicide death rate. In addition, a rising suicide death rate might be related to the increase in suicide-related search activity (particularly utsu[depression]), but an increase in suicide-related search activity itself is not directly linked to the rise of suicide death rate.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02216.x

Hagihara, A., Miyazaki, S., & Abe, T. (2011). Internet suicide searches and the incidence of suicide in young people in Japan. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, [xx]([xx]), [xx-xx].
Résumé: Although several case reports have suggested a relationship between accessing Internet suicide sites and the incidence of suicide, the influence of the Internet on the incidence of suicide is not known. Thus, we examined the association between Internet suicide-related searches and the incidence of suicide in 20- and 30-year-old individuals in Japan. The Box-Jenkins transfer function model was applied to monthly time series data from January 2004 to May 2010 (77 months). The terms "hydrogen sulfide," "hydrogen sulfide suicide," and "suicide hydrogen sulfide suicide" at (t-11) were related to the incidence of suicide among people aged in their 20 s and people aged in their 30 s. "BBS on suicide" at (t-5) and "suicide by jumping" at (t-6) were related to the incidence of suicide in people aged 30-39. Internet searches for specific suicide-related terms are related to the incidence of suicide among 20- and 30-year-old individuals in Japan. Routine interrogation by a clinician about visiting Internet suicide websites and stricter regulation of these websites may reduce the incidence of suicide among young people.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-011-0212-8

Ozawa-De Silva, C. (2010). Shared death: self, sociality and Internet group suicide in Japan. Transcultural Psychiatry, 47(3), 392-418.
Résumé: Existing models for understanding suicide fail to account for the distinctiveness of Internet group suicide, a recent phenomenon in Japan. Drawing from an ethnography of Internet suicide websites, two social commentaries in Japanese popular culture, and the work of developmental psychologist Philippe Rochat, I argue that participation in Internet suicide forums and even the act of Internet group suicide result from both a need for social connectedness and the fear of social rejection and isolation that this need engenders. These needs and fears are especially strong in the case of Japan, where the dominant cultural rhetoric ties selfhood closely to the social self that is the object of perception and experience by others. I show how such an understanding of Internet group suicide helps us to understand some of its basic characteristics, which are otherwise difficult to explain and which have puzzled the Japanese media and popular accounts: the "ordinariness" or casual nature of Internet group suicide, the wish for an easy or comfortable death, the wish to die with others, and the wish to "vanish." Internet group suicide sheds light on questions of Japanese selfhood in modernity and expands our understanding of suicide in Japan in general.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461510370239

Chang, S. S., Page, A., & Gunnell, D. (2011). Internet searches for a specific suicide method follow its high-profile media coverage. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(8), 855-857.
Résumé: We investigated the effect of media coverage of suicides by hydrogen sulfide gassing on trends in Internet searches in two countries. In Japan, news reports of three deaths using this method in late February 2008 were followed by more than 200 hydrogen sulfide suicides during the subsequent 4 months. This epidemic was thought to be fueled by information on the Internet about making the gas. In the United Kingdom, extensive media coverage on September 20, 2010, of a suicide pact using this method was followed by a second hydrogen sulfide suicide pact within 10 days and another in February 2011. We investigated search volume patterns from Google searches using the terms "suicide" and "hydrogen sulfide" (or "hydrogen sulphide"), filtering for Japan from January 2004 to January 2011 and for the United Kingdom from August 2009 to January 2011. The searches were performed in Japanese and English.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11020284

Messias, E., Castro, J., Saini, A., Usman, M., & Peeples, D. (2011). Sadness, suicide, and their association with video game and internet overuse among teens: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(3), 307-315.
Résumé: We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey. Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the 2009 YRBS, had a significantly higher risk for sadness, suicidal ideation, and suicide planning. The same pattern was found in the 2007 survey. These findings support an association between excessive video game and Internet use and risk for teen depression and suicidality.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00030.x

Polder-Verkiel, S. E. (2012). Online Responsibility: Bad Samaritanism and the Influence of Internet Mediation. Science and Engineering Ethics, 18(1), 117-141.
Résumé: In 2008 a young man committed suicide while his webcam was running. 1,500 people apparently watched as the young man lay dying: when people finally made an effort to call the police, it was too late. This closely resembles the case of Kitty Genovese in 1964, where 39 neighbours supposedly watched an attacker assault and did not call until it was too late. This paper examines the role of internet mediation in cases where people may or may not have been good Samaritans and what their responsibilities were. The method is an intuitive one: intuitions on the various potentially morally relevant differences when it comes to responsibility between offline and online situations are examined. The number of onlookers, their physical nearness and their anonymity have no moral relevance when it comes to holding them responsible. Their perceived reality of the situation and ability to act do have an effect on whether we can hold people responsible, but this doesn't seem to be unique to internet mediation. However the way in which those factors are intrinsically connected to internet mediation does seem to have a diminishing effect on responsibility in online situations.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11948-010-9253-z

Thom, K., Edwards, G., Nakarada-Kordic, I., McKenna, B., O'Brien, A., & Nairn, R. (2011). Suicide online: Portrayal of website-related suicide by the New Zealand media. New Media and Society, 13(8), 1355-1372.
Résumé: Media reporting can impact negatively or positively on suicidal behaviour. Specific reporting methods such as the use of sensationalism can influence suicidal behaviour. This paper presents the findings from a study that aimed to provide an in-depth examination of New Zealand mainstream news items in which websites played a role in suicide. We used framing analysis to interpret the role online technology plays in the reporting of the suicide event. The findings indicate that news items were primarily framed in such a way so that the role of online technology was often overemphasised at the expense of the suicide events themselves. While websites were characteristically framed as 'enablers' or 'preventers' of suicide, the contribution of mental wellbeing to suicide was largely marginalised in the news media reports. The paper concludes by considering the implications of these framings for existing media studies of suicide and the media's role in suicide prevention.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444811406521

Leykin, Y., Munoz, R. F., & Contreras, O. (2011). Are consumers of Internet health information "cyberchondriacs"? Characteristics of 24,965 users of a depression screening site. Depression and Anxiety, 29(1), 71-77.
Résumé: Background: The number of individuals looking for health information on the Internet continues to expand. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of major depression among English-speaking individuals worldwide looking for information on depression online. Methods: An automated online Mood Screener website was created and advertised via Google AdWords, for 1 year. Participants (N = 24,965) completed a depression screening measure and received feedback based on their results. Participants were then invited to participate in a longitudinal mood screening study. Results: Of the 24,965 who completed the screening, 66.6% screened positive for current major depression, 44.4% indicated current suicidality, and 7.8% reported a recent (past 2 weeks) suicide attempt. Of those consenting to participate in the longitudinal study, 77.4% screened positive for past depression, 64.6% reported past suicidality, and 17.5% past suicide attempt. Yet, only 25% of those screening positive for current depression, and only 37.2% of those reporting a recent suicide attempt are in treatment. Conclusions: Many of the consumers of Internet health information may genuinely need treatment and are not "cyberchondriacs." Online screening, treatment, and prevention efforts may have the potential to serve many currently untreated clinically depressed and suicidal individuals.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20848

Yang, A. C., Tsai, S.-J., Huang, N. E., & Peng, C.-K. (2011). Association of Internet search trends with suicide death in Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004–2009. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132(1-2), 179-184.
Résumé: Background: Although Internet has become an important source for affected people seeking suicide information, the connection between Internet searches for suicide information and suicidal death remains largely unknown. This study aims to evaluate the association between suicide and Internet searches trends for 37 suicide-related terms representing major known risks of suicide. Methods: This study analyzes suicide death data in Taipei City, Taiwan and corresponding local Internet search trend data provided by Google Insights for Search during the period from January 2004 to December 2009. The investigation uses cross correlation analysis to estimate the temporal relationship between suicide and Internet search trends and multiple linear regression analysis to identify significant factors associated with suicide from a pool of search trend data that either coincides or precedes the suicide death. Results: Results show that a set of suicide-related search terms, the trends of which either temporally coincided or preceded trends of suicide data, were associated with suicide death. These search factors varied among different suicide samples. Searches for “major depression” and “divorce” accounted for, at most, 30.2% of the variance in suicide data. When considering only leading suicide trends, searches for “divorce” and the pro-suicide term “complete guide of suicide,” accounted for 22.7% of variance in suicide data. Conclusions: Appropriate filtering and detection of potentially harmful source in keyword-driven search results by search engine providers may be a reasonable strategy to reduce suicide deaths.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.01.019

Cheng, Q., Fu, K. W., & Yip, P. S. (2010). A comparative study of online suicide-related information in Chinese and English. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(3), 313-319.
Résumé: OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the online suicide-related contents of Chinese-language Web sites compared with contents observed in an American study that considered English-language Web sites, so as to examine what differences there might be between Chinese online information and its English counterpart. METHOD: Online contents were generated by entering 4 suicide-related search queries into 5 popular search engines in mainland China in September 2008. The search queries were simplified Chinese translations of terms used in a 2008 American study that used similar methodology. RESULTS: Of the Chinese Web sites, a smaller proportion carried pro-suicide information compared with the corresponding results obtained from the study of English-language Web sites (4.2% vs 11.7%), whereas the proportion of anti-suicide Web sites in both languages was almost the same (32.3% vs 34.9%). Anti-suicide Web sites in Chinese, however, provided less information on seeking help, and there were fewer government or professional mental health Web sites in Chinese (1.3% vs 13.3%). The pro-suicide information on Chinese Web sites was mostly found in personal blogs or online forums. CONCLUSION: Psychiatrists and public health researchers dealing with suicide prevention in China should be aware of the differences between online suicide-related information in the Chinese and English languages.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.09m05440blu

Lewis, S. P., & Baker, T. G. (2011). The possible risks of self-injury web sites: a content analysis. Archives of Suicide Research, 15(4), 390-396.
Résumé: The goal of this study was to examine the content of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) Web sites, often shared via e-communities. Using a content analysis, 71 Web sites were investigated. Web sites depict NSSI as: an effective coping mechanism (91.55%), addictive and difficult to stop (87.23%), and not always painful (23.94%). Almost all Web sites had melancholic tones (83.10%); several contained graphic photography (29.58%). Most NSSI messages (61.97%) were ambivalent (NSSI-accepting and deterring). Finally, several Web sites (11.27%) provided testimony that NSSI-content is triggering. Findings mirror recent work and NSSI material on these Web sites may normalize and reinforce NSSI. Professionals may need to assess the online activity of individuals who self-injure. Despite its risks, the Internet may serve as a vehicle to reach those who self-injure.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2011.616154

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Les opinions exprimées dans ces documents sont celles des auteurs et elles ne représentent pas nécessairement celles des membres du CRISE. Ces titres sont fournis à titre informatif seulement et cette liste ne se veut pas être exhaustive. Le CRISE ne se tient aucunement responsable de l'utilisation de l'information contenue à l'intérieur de ces documents.

 
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UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal  ›  Mise à jour : février 2006